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S.D. Iboroma*, C.C. Obunwo and G.A. Cookey

Department of Chemistry, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:The sedimentation rate of barium phosphate (BP) precipitate in aqueous medium has been determined with respect to barium-to-phosphate (Ba:P) volume ratio, concentration of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), temperature and stirring, using the batch-wise ‘Simultaneous Ion Variation Method’. The results show that BP precipitate sedimentation is strongly influenced by stirring and high temperature conditions but weakly affected by Na-CMC biopolymer. It is also influenced by Ba:P volume ratio if low volume of barium or phosphate ions is mixed with high volume of phosphate or barium ions. Sedimentation rate of BP precipitate increased by 79% between first and second stirrings, 179% between 30 and 50oC rise in temperature and 42% between 200 and 2000ppm Na-CMC addition. BP precipitate formed at 0.1, 0.7 and 0.8 Ba:P volume fractions produced high sedimentation rate values (4.46cmminute-1, 4.49 cmminute-1 and 4.96 cmminute-1) while other volume fractions (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) gave lower values (2.46 cmminute-1, 3.74 cmminute-1, 1.96 cmminute-1, 1.90 cmminute-1 and 2.42 cmminute-1). These results have been discussed based on change in amount of particles formed, interactions between particles in suspension and with aqueous medium.

Keyword: barium phosphate, stirring, temperature, Ba:P volume ratio, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sedimentation rate.

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2. Collection Procedures of Carp Egg of Halda River along with Marketing and Economic Conditions of the Fishermen and Other Related People

Md Abdul Bakir Bhuiyan1, Dr. Shahroz Mahean Haque2, Dr. Binay Kumar Chakraborty3, Parvez Chowdhury4 and *Md. Moshiur Rahman5

1. Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. 2. Professor, Department of Fisheries Management, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. 3. Project Director, Department of Fisheries, Bangladesh. 4. Scientific officer, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Headquarters, Mymensingh-2201. 5. Senior Scientific officer, Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute, Freshwater Station, Mymensingh-2201.

ABSTRACT:Halda is the only river in Bangladesh where major Indian carps spawn naturally which makes this river an irreplaceable heritage of this country. For this reason a study was conducted to observe present status of Indian major carp breeding and collection management procedures of carp spawn and fry from the Halda River along with marketing process and economic conditions of the fishermen and other people related with it during March 2015 to July 2015. Data were collected through direct interview. During this study it was found that in spawn and fry marketing system of River Halda, a number of intermediaries were involved actively for selling eggs, spawn and fry. Four different types of marketing systems were identified in Halda fry distribution fry seller to final consumer. Fertilized Halda eggs were collected and hatched by the local people using their indigenous method. Those egg collectors sold per kg of spawn and fry at a cost of 50,000-80,000 Tk. to the hatchery owners. Again, hatchery owners sold each and every fry at a cost of 5.0-6.0 Tk. to the local fish farmers. Yearly survey information about Halda River’s egg, spawn and fry collection in RaozanUpazila showed that there were ups and downs in the production rate of Halda fry during last 4-5 years. The production status in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 year was 61.72 kg, 302.65 kg, 80.9 kg, 178.38 kg and 38.42 kg respectively and these types of ups and down indicated a major concerning issue. Different types of transports were used to carry spawn and fry of Halda River. Investigation was also made to find out the economic condition, average income during breeding season and off season, education background, family status etc. of the local people of Halda region involving themselves in fry collecting and marketing process. This study recommends that the habitat of Indian major carp with ecological factors and protection of the breeding ground is needed to ensure availability of eggs, spawn and fry in the Halda River.

Keyword: Halda river, Carp Spawn and fry, Marketing channel, Economic Condition.

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*Md. Maidul Husain1, Biplab Biswas1, Anjuman Ara1 and Asmaul Husna1

(1) Department of Statistics, Bangabandhu Sheikh MujiburRahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj-8100, Bangladesh

ABSTRACT:Total number of child death under 5 years is an indicator of child health and overalldevelopment of a country, as it reflects the socio-economic condition of a country where children are growing up. Despite substantial progress in reducing child mortality over the world, remains child death under 5 years urgent concern for many developing country specially in Bangladesh is 32 per 1,000 live births, according to new mortality estimates released by UNICEF, WHO, the UN Population Division, and the World Bank Group. There are many factors contributed to child mortality such as mother education, place of residence, awareness of caring child, maternal age of mother etc. In this paper we have modeled the number of under-5 children deaths experienced by a mother to the associated available factors suggested by the literature. In BDHS 2014 survey, nearly 84.83% of the mothers never experienced any under-5 child death. That means, our response variable is zero-inflated, which motivated us to fit Zero inflated negative Binomial (ZINB) models to the data. ZINB combines of binomial distribution and logit distribution, model has statistical advantage to modeling over dispersion and the excess no. zeros in the data set. The empirical results of this study support the hypothesis about children deaths under 5 years age in a household.

Keyword: Child Mortality, Count Model, ZINB, BDHS

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