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S.No. MAY-JUNE Page No. Downloads
1. Facies classification and Ionic Ratio evaluation of Groundwater around Igbokoda Coastal Area, southwestern Nigeria


Department of Geology, Ekiti State University, P. M. B. 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:Facies classification of groundwater around Igbokoda Coastal Area, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out employing ionic ratio, Piper diagram, Chadha plot and Hydrochemical Facies Evolution Diagram (HFE-D). Ionic ratios of HCO3-/Cl-, Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Cl-, Ca2+/Na+, Mg2+/Cl-, K+/Cl- and SO42-/Cl- were calculated and plotted against TDS to study the ingress of seawater into coastal aquifers of the area. Chemical analysis of groundwater from the area revealed average concentrations (mg/L) of Ca2+ (25.14), Mg2+ (3.46), Na+ (26.12mg/L), K+ (13.86), HCO3- (1.34), Cl- (7.95 mg/L), SO42- (2.46) and PO42-(3.64). Plots of ionic ratios vs. TDS tend towards that of seawater with increasing TDS signifying seawater intrusion. The Piper diagram revealed dominant Na+- Cl- water (85%) (indication of saltwater intrusion), Mixed Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl- type (10%) and Ca2+- Cl- type (5%) respectively. The Chadha diagram revealed dominant Na+ -Cl- type (90%) and Ca2+ -Mg2+ -Cl- (10%) signifying reverse ion exchange in the zone. The HFE-D indicated that 20% of the groundwater samples fell in the generalized seawater intrusion zone of the aquifer with facies representations of Na-Cl type (5%), Mix Ca-Mix Cl type (10%), MixCa-Cl type (5%) and Ca-Cl type (5%) while 15% of the groundwater samples were in the freshening phase (facies; Ca-HCO3/SO4(5%), MixCa-HCO3/SO4 (5%) and Na-MixCl (5%) respectively. Majority of the groundwater samples (60%) fell into the simple binary mixing zone with little or no intervention of Base Exchange reactions. The HFE-D recognized the sequence of the facies in detail and therefore the succession and interpretation of processes in contrast to Piper and Chadha diagram.

Keyword: Hydrochemistry; ionic ratios; seawater; water facies; reverse ion exchange.

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*Ajakaye O.J1 , Elinge C.M1 , Hassan L.G2 , Senchi D.S1 and Ige A.R.1

(1)Deparment of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Nigeria. (2)Deparment of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Usmanu Dan Fodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:In Nigeria, biogas technology has remained at the level of institutional research work and preliminary schemes. Its progress being underdeveloped by unfamiliarity, researches at universities frequently considered as being too academic, lack of political will, and lack of an adequate coordinating framework. The main objective of this study is to highlight how agricultural wastes mostly generated in Nigeria could be used to generate high amount of biogas. This study evaluates biogas production from kolanut husk, poultry dropping and ruminant waste of cow using five (5) batch digesters of 2500g net weight capacity container operated at ambient temperature 27°C and 41°C for 154 days retention time and pH range of 7.13 -9.27 before and after the production. The digesters were charged with constant substrates and different water ratios due to the nature of substrates. Kolanut husk (KH); 500g/2500cm3 of water, poultry dropping (PD); 500g/1700cm3 of water and ruminant waste of cow (RC); 500g/1000cm3 of water for digesters A, B and C respectively while digesters D and E contained kolanut husk: poultry dropping (KH:PD); 500g at ratio 1:1/2500cm3 and kolanut husk: ruminant waste of cow (KH:RC); 500g at ratio 1:1/1600cm3 respectively. The Total volatile solid (TVS) of the substrates before 76.7%, 62.3%, 71.0% , 52.7% and 64.7% , after digestion and total biogas production were 3690, 84060, 33180, 62420 and 45220 (cm3). Daily biogas yield was measured by the downward water displacement method. In this research it was observed that Kolanut husk has poor biogas yield with less favourable physicochemical properties and acidic pH except when co-digested with suitable additives to create a positive mutual effect which increased the yield greatly

Keyword: Agricultural waste, Biogas, Technology, Total volatile solid, Water displacement.

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3. Optimization of callus induction in Coconut cv MATAG anther cultures

1Zuraida A.R., 2Sentoor Kumaran G., 2Ahmad N. and 1Ayu Nazreena O.

1Biotechnology & Nanotechnology Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Crop Science and Soil Science Research Centre MARDI Headquarters, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang Selangor, Malaysia

ABSTRACT:Anthers of coconut cv MATAG were harvested from unopen male flowers to investigate the optimal conditions affecting callus induction. After disinfection, the anther explants were cultured on full Y3 and modified Y3 media supplanted with varying concentrations of 2,4-D, NAA or/and IAA. Anthers cultured in Y3 medium containing 2,4-D or NAA formed few calluses, none of which proliferated. The best callogenesis was obtained in Y3 supplemented with 2.0 mg/L IAA. The callus obtained was maintained through sub-culturing on the fresh medium containing the plant growth regulator for callus proliferation. A medium containing 2.0 mg/L IAA in combination with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D promoted good callus proliferation.

Keyword: Anther, callus induction, callus proliferation, Cocos nucifera

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4. Consequences of Anthropocentric Exploitative Activities on Nonhuman Animals

1Pascal Mwina Mbatha, 2Patrick Ouma Nyabul, 3John Muhenda

1*Department of Philosophy, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya 2Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3Department of Philosophy, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

ABSTRACT:Human centered activities unswervingly or ramblingly affects nonhuman animals within the ecosystem. Actions executed by humans aim at a certain goal. Man is inclined to what brings him comfort, but he appears to be ignorant that he is not the only animate being in the universe. Any action carried out therefore does not affect him alone but also affect other organisms like plants and nonhuman animals. The use of nonhuman animals as means of supporting humans in their existence seems to have its root cause in man’s centeredness behaviour. Man sees himself as inclined to nonhuman animals for his selfish benefits. Singer argues that, it is due to man’s failure to understand that nonhuman animals have rights and also experience pain just like humans, though his argument is good, it does not give the root cause for the exploitation. The researcher has employed analytic method to address Singer’s shortage in addressing nonhuman animals’ exploitation. Man is egoistic, hence considers himself as of much value than other nonhuman animals, something which Singer does not address. Man should not therefore draw attention to his own comfort alone but also to that of nonhuman animals.

Keyword: Consequences, anthropocentric, exploitative, activities, nonhuman, animals.

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5. Determination of antimicrobial efficacy of four Ayurveda Local Applications (Pratisarana Yoga) in the management of Periodontal Disease

Peiris K.P.P.1, Wanigasekara D.N.2, Sudesh A.D.H.1, Karunarathne E.D.C.1

1Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurveda Institute, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT:This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of four Ayurvedic formulations namely Kushtadi Churna, Swethamanjana Churna, Karanjadi Churna and Dasana Sanskara Churna that are used to treat periodontal diseases as local applications. The objectives are to find out the presence or absence of in-vitro antimicrobial efficacy of these four drugs and to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of them using agar well diffusion method. The organisms used for the study are Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and clinically isolated Candida albicans. The results of the in-vitro antimicrobial efficacy study reveals that Swethamanjana Churna possesses antimicrobial action against all three tested microorganisms. Kushtadi Churna is effective against S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and MRSA (ATCC 25923) and it is unable to affect the growth of C. albicans. Karanjadi Churna and Dasana Sanskara Churna are effective against S. aureus (ATCC 29213) and C. albicans and not effective against MRSA(ATCC 25923). Fluconazole and Amoxicillin are used as positive controls for the yeast and two bacteria respectively.

Keyword: Periodontal disease, antimicrobial activity, Kushtadi Churna, Pratisarana yoga, Dasana Sanskara Churna

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AKINNIRAN, T. N., Ojedokun, I. K. and FADIPE, D. D.

Department of Agricultural Economics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:This study examines the role of Nigerian capital market on its economic development from the period of 1990-2013. In line with the objectives of this study, secondary data were obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin, 2013 and the Nigerian Stock Exchange fact book. Data obtained were analysed using both graphical and regression analysis. Gross Domestic Product was regressed on the explanatory variables: market capitalization, all-share index, volume of transaction, value of transaction and number of listed companies. The result from the findings of the study indicates that market capitalization, all-share index, volume of transaction and number of listed companies were positively related with the GDP, while market capitalization and number of listed companies showed a significant relationship with GDP. This implies that GDP is increased by an increase in the market capitalization, all share index, volume of transaction in Nigeria, and number of listed companies. Following the outcome of this study, it is therefore concluded that the Nigerian capital market plays a major role in the economic development of Nigeria in terms of capital mobilization and allocation of productive resources to aid national economic development. It is recommended that government should assist by providing appropriate savings/investment inducing measures through the adoption of fiscal and monetary policies, economic and financial policy reforms that can encourage investment in the capital market as it can stimulate both investors and users of long-term funds, and provision of efficient infrastructure, telecommunications and investment incentives.

Keyword: Stock exchange, market-indicator, Gross Domestic Products (GDP), Market capitalization, Share index, transaction volume and economic development

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Consul, Juliana Iworikumo*, Okrinya, Aniayam

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:This research is focused on the Bayesian inference of multinomial data using sequential updating of the Nigerian presidential polls. The research has supposed that there are three distinct proportions which are the probabilities that the sample of the politicians would be allocated into each of the categories of the political parties. The prior beliefs about the proportions were taken as the choices of the parties of the three hundred and sixty elected House of Representatives. This is given a Dirichlet distribution. Based on sequential updating, the posterior distribution after observing the 2015 Nigerian election data is the prior distribution before observing the 2019 Nigerian election data. The posterior distribution and credible interval of the parameters were also summarised. It was seen that the data had little effect on the prior distribution and obviously the Nigerian electoral system makes it almost impossible for new political parties to become successful. It was also seen that the credible intervals for all parameters were very narrow which implied a smaller chance of obtaining an observation outside the interval, high accuracy and more precise estimates.

Keyword: Prior distribution, posterior distribution, sequential updating, Dirichlet distribution, multinomial distribution.

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8. The Effects of Anchor Borrower Programme on Poverty Reduction of Smallholder Rice farmers in Lagos and Ogun State, Nigeria

Sanusi, W.A

Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso Oyo State Nigeria

ABSTRACT:As smallholder farmers are the major producer of food, they are equally among the net buyer of grains in Nigeria. Poverty is a key factor contributing to the low level of agricultural productivity of farmers in the country. However, this study analyse the effect of Anchor borrowers’ programme (ABP) on poverty reduction of smallholder rice farmers in Lagos and Ogun State Nigeria. Three-stage random sampling techniques were used to select two hundred and forty seven Anchor Borrowers’ Programme beneficiaries for the study. A well designed questionnaire was used to collect necessary information from the respondents and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and endogenous selection control function approach. Result showed that most of the respondents were male, married and had an average household size of 7.67. This indicated a fairly large farming household. Poverty incidence in the study area stood at 34% with poverty depth and severity of 8% and 2% respectively. This indicated that poverty incidence among ABP farmers in the study area is still. The result further revealed that land acquisition which was taken as proxy for productive asset was negative and significant while household size was positively related to poverty status of the respondents. Also the result showed that the marital status of the respondents, labour utilization, farm size, and amount of fertilizer used had positive relationship with rice output in the study area. The study therefore recommends policies that can impel reduction of family size; and spurred access to productive asset for large scale production should be implemented.

Keyword: Asset, Labour, Poverty, Rice, Smallholder

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Akinniran, T. N. Olapade-Ogunwole, F. and Adeleke, O. A.

Department of Agric Economics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:Oil palm is appreciated by most people in the Southern part of Nigeria because of its level of utilization with respect to the various products and by-products that can be obtained from it; such as; palm oil, palm kernel oil and palm kernel cake. Oil palm gives the highest yield of oil per unit area, compared to any other oil producing plant when processed, and it produces two distinct oils; Palm oil and Palm Kernel Oil which are of great importance in the industrial market. The study examined the economic analysis of oil palm production in Ife east local government, Osun State, Nigeria and specifically look at the socio-economic characteristics of oil palm farmers, estimate the cost and return of the oil palm producers in the area, analyze the factors that influence output of palm producers in the study area and identify the constraints militating against oil palm production in the study area. Multistage sampling method was used in select 120 respondents who were interviewed with the aid of structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, descriptive statistics, budgetary technique and multiple regression models were used as analytical technique. The results showed that 63.3% of the respondents were male, 55.8% of the respondents were between the ages ranges of 41-50 years with the mean age was 51 years, 96.6% of the respondents were married, 85.8% of the respondent’s secondary school education, 73.3% of the respondents had between 5-8 household members, 78.3% of the respondents had between 5-8 hectares of farm land with the mean farm size of 4 hectares, 60.0% of the respondents had between 11-20 years of Oil palm production experience, 90.8% of the respondents acquired their farming land through inheritance, 99.2% of the respondents do have access to credit through family and friends, 57.5% do have access to credit through cooperatives societies, 57.5% of the respondents realized between N200,100-N400,000 annually, the analysis ration showed that the benefit cost ration (BCR) was greater than one, 93.3% of the respondents encountered problem of inadequate capital or lack of access to credit in Oil palm production, 100.0% encountered problem of price fluctuation in Oil palm production. The result of regression analysis showed that Age and sex is negatively significant at 1% level, years spent in school and farm size is positively significant at 1% level. Access to credit, cost of hiring labour and transportation cost is negatively significant at 1% level, extension contact is negatively significant at 5% level respondents in the study area. It was concluded that credit has negative impacts on the production of oil palm an therefore it was recommended that government should make available loan able fund and credit available to oil palm producers to tackle the menace of pest and diseases,

Keyword: Oil palm, profitability, multiple regression, multi stage sampling

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