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2019 VOLUME-2 ISSUE-1 JANUARY-FEBRUARY

COMPELET ISSUE
S.No. JANUARY-FEBRUARY Page No. Downloads
1. YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF RICE VARIETIES AS INFLUENCED BY STAND DENSITY AND NPK FERTILIZER

Onyeke, A.*1, Gani, M.2 and Avidime, J.O. 2

1. Department of Agronomy Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 2. Department of Crop Production and Protection, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT:Field trials were conducted in 2016 at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in Northern Guinea Savanna and Kadawa, in Sudan Savanna of Nigeria, to study yield and yield components of rice varieties as influenced by NPK fertilizer and stand densities. The treatments consisted of two lowland rice varieties (FARO 44 and FARO 52), three NPK fertilizer (40:20:20, 80:40:40, 120:60:60) kgha-1 and three level of plants/stand (2, 4 and 6). The treatments were factorially combined and laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated three times. The result showed that yield parameters were enhanced with increased rate of NPK fertilizer with optimum grain yield obtained from the application of NPK 120:60:60 kgha-1 . Also 2 plants/stand densities gave the highest grain yield components which translated into higher grain yield. Among the two varieties evaluated, FARO 52 gave higher value for most yield components, however, FARO 44 gave higher harvest index and grain yield. The interaction between 2 plants/stand densities with the application of NPK 120:60:60 kgha-1 resulted in maximum yield of 6479.3 kgha-1 at Kadawa and 5762.5 kgha-1 at Samaru. The interaction between FARO 44 with the application of NPK 120:60:60 kgha-1 gave maximum yield of 5882 kgha-1 . It can be concluded that, sowing FARO 44 at 2 plants/stand with the application of NPK fertilizer at 120:60:60 kgha-1 gave optimum grain yield per ha.

Keyword: FARO 44, FARO 52, NPK, Density, Oryza sativa, grain yield

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1-12 download
2. DETERMINATION OF POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION USING THE PENMAN-MONTEITH MODEL FOR OWERRI

Wansah, J.F.1 ,*, Udosen, A.E.2 , Iyen, C.1 , Iseh, A.J.1 ,Ocheje, A.J.1 and Akeredolu, J.B.1,3*

1Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Federal University Wukari, Wukari 2Department of Physics, University of Uyo, Uyo. 3Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore India

ABSTRACT:The determination of the potential evapotranspiration using the Penman-Monteith model for Owerri has been carried out. Potential evapotranspiration represents the environmental demand for evapotranspiration for a location which reflects the energy available to evaporate water from the ground into the lower atmosphere.The data for this work were collected from the Nigeria Meteorological Agency, Owerri which is at altitude 160 m, latitude 50º 00′ N and longitude 06º 05′ E. The result of this work shows that the maximum potential evapotranspirationoccurs from January to March, then drops considerably from April to September and then rises from October to December. This result is useful to farmers and horticulturalists in determining when to farm and to irrigate the farms and gardens.

Keyword: Energy, farmers, Owerri, Penman-Monteith model, potential evapotranspiration

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12-21 download
3. PREDICTION OF TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECT OF SCHIFF BASE LIGAND USING ONLINE COMPUTER SOFTWARE PROGRAMS

Kamel Mokhnache, Soraya Madoui, Noureddine Charef

Laboratory of Applied Biochemistry, University Ferhat Abbas Setif 1,19000, Algeria

ABSTRACT:The aim of the present work was to evaluate In silico the toxicity, metabolic sites, and metabolites of the ligand 2-[(1E)-N-{2-[(2-{(Z)-[1-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ethylidene] amino}ethyl) amino]ethyl} ethanimidoyl] phenol. In silico, toxicity of the ligand was predicted by online computer software programs such as ACD/I-Lab, Pred hERG, Lazar and BioZyne. Our results showed noncarcinogenicity and non- mutagenicity effects were predicted. We conclude that the ligand has low toxicity, which was the possibility to be a safe drug-candidate in the future.

Keyword:: bioactivity, toxicity, online

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21-26 download
4. VOLTAGE STABILITY IN NIGERIA POWER GRID: A DETAILED LITERATURE REVIEW

B.O. Olajiga1 , P.K. Olulope2

1,2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

ABSTRACT:This paper presents a critical review of the current national electricity grid in Nigeria, how voltage stability is maintained in the grid, find out the limitations of the transmission network and compare the different options for overcoming them in the available literature, learn from the previous studies about the use of renewable energy sources in Nigeria, understand the prospect of developing electricity grid in Nigeria by learning about the identified challenges from literary sources.

Keyword: Voltage Stability, Power Grid, Renewable Energy

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26-36 download
5. PREVALENCE OF WORK-RELATED MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG COMMERCIAL TRICYCLE RIDERS IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS OF NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

A.Umar, Abdulsalam Abdullah,Jacinta A. Opara

University of Maiduguri Maiduguri-Nigeria and Federal College of Education, Okene-Nigeria

ABSTRACT: This study was to determine the prevalence of WMSDs among commercial tricycle in Borno State. Across-sectional study of the commercial tricycle riders was carried out using the standardized Nordic Questionnaire. Descriptive Statistics of mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage were used to summarize the data, while chi-square was used to test difference in prevalence of WMSDs of selected socio-demographic and work-related characteristics of the participants at 0.05alpha level. Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have become a major problem in many industrialized countries and a comparable trend has also been observed in developing countries. The results showed the overall 12 months prevalence of self –reported WMSDs to be 99.7%., with the two shoulders most commonly affected with a prevalence of 89.1%. There was statistically significant difference in 12 months prevalence of WMSDs among commercial tricycle riders of different educational level (x2 =11.449; P-value=0.010) with those in the age group of 18-35 years recorded the highest prevalence rate of 78.2%. There was a high 12 months prevalence of WMSDs among the commercial tricycle riders with the highest prevalence observed in the shoulder region. This study supports the need for vigilant ergonomic intervention at job sites and early ergonomic education as an integral part of apprenticeship and training of commercial tricycle riders in order to prevent the incidence and prevalence of WMSDs among this group of individuals.

Keyword: Work, Musculoskeletal disorders, Commercial tricycle riders, Maiduguri, Nigeria

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36-45 download
6. SWOT ANALYSIS OF FACILITY MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY OF SAMBURU COUNTY REFERRAL HOSPITAL, KENYA.

James O Ochieng, BSc, and Caren A Oruko, Dip

Department of Community Health, Meru University of Science and Technology, Kenya, Department of Public Health, Kenya Medical Training College,(KNH Campus) Kenya.

ABSTRACT: The prime objective of the paper is to give a SWOT analysis of the facility management at Samburu County referral hospital. The management technique at the facility includes various mechanisms of general management of the infrastructures and a holistic harmonization of work environment. This is of great significance since it gives an insight of the current situation in the facility after the devolution of the health care systems to the county governments post the promulgation of the current constitution in 2010. The transition of the health care management in Samburu County have been characterized by enormous challenges such as but not limited to understaffing, chronic debts, brain drain, poor infrastructures, obsolete machinery and supply shortages. This paper also aims at establishing if the current management has the capacity to influence positively the most essential core values including accountability, equity, improved efficiency, empowerment as well as good stewardship.

Keyword:Swot analysis, management techniques, devolution of health care, challenges facing health care system, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

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45-50 download
7. An M/M/1 Retrial Queue With Working Vacation And Non-persistent Customers Under Bernoulli Schedule

1 Jinping Xu, 2 Juntong Li, 3 Tao Li+ , 4 Zhenzhen Xu

123School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, 255049, Shandong, China 4Weifang Medical University, Weifang, 261041, Shandong, China

ABSTRACT: In this paper, we considered an M/M/1 retrial queue with working vacation and nonpersistent customers under Bernoulli schedule. Request retrials from the orbit of infinite size follow a Poisson process with rate . When the system is empty, the server either takes an ordinary vacation with probability ( ) or a working vacation with probability ( ). Using the matrix-analytic method, the stationary probability distribution is obtained on the stability condition. Finally, showing the effect of the models parameters on the system’s characteristics by some numerical examples.

Keyword:Retrial; Working vacation; Ordinary vacation; Bernoulli.

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50-60 download
8. HEPATOTOXICITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY EFFECT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES EXTRACT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

1Oise A.E, 2Abubakar A.N, 1ABBAS-Adediran H, 1 Inyang J.O. and 1Echekoba C.A

1Bioresource Development Centre Odi, National Biotechnology Development Agency 2Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State

ABSTRACT: Murraya Koenigii is a medicinal plant, which is claimed to have hypoglycemic potentials. The study was carried out to investigate the toxicity of long time usage of Murraya Koenigii in normal and alloxan-induced rats. In this study 30 rats were used which includes 5 normal rats, 5 diabetic untreated rats, 5 diabetic treated with aqueous extracts, 5 diabetic rats treated with ethanolic extract and 5 diabetic rats treated with standard drug. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant were prepared and blood glucose lowering effect and improvement of body weight gain in alloxan induced diabetic rats were measured and compared with that of standard drug. Rats were administered Murraya Koenigii extracts orally for 28 days, respectively. The animal were further sacrificed after the study and their serum collected to test for the effect of the extract on the liver and kidney. Although aqueous extract was more effective and no significant effect on the liver and kidney parameters when compared with non-induced untreated group. The data were compared statistically by using student’s unpaired t-test. The present study clearly indicated that the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Murraya Koenigii has some hypoglycemic properties and maybe safe to use.

Keyword:hypoglycemic, Murraya Koenigii, alloxan and diabetic rats.

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60-65 download
9. A STUDY OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES AMONG HEALTHY SUBJECTS IN UNIVERSITY ENVIRONMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF ADEKUNLE AJASIN UNIVERSITY, AKUNGBA-AKOKO, ONDO STATE

Emmanuel Olumuyiwa Onifade1, 2 , Grace Adesoji1 , Stephen Olaide Aremu2, 3

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, P.M.B 001, AkungbaAkoko, Ondo State, Nigeria Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Tract, Tomsk, Russian Federation

ABSTRACT: Bacteria among other microorganisms viz fungi, viruses, protozoans and even some metazoans are ubiquitous and as well survive in different environments. Despite the fact that some microorganisms are beneficial while others are not, yet the diversity in habitat occupied by bacteria makes it easier for them to cause infections especially whenever the environments is conducive as in the case of opportunistic infections. The study was undertaken to identify the bacteria associated with hand palms and armpits of healthy subjects and also to evaluate the antibiotics sensitivity patterns of the bacteria. The study population consisted of seven males and four females healthy students of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State Nigeria between the age of eighteen (18) and thirty (30) years old. All the bacteria encountered were cultured on tryptone soya agar and eosin methylene blue agar, while only Gram-positive cocci were cultured on mannitol salt agar. The bacterial isolates were identified based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Out of the sixteen bacteria obtained, 4(25%) were Staphylococcus aureus, while Streptococcus species and Staphylococcus species were 3(18.75%) each. Other bacteria identified were 2(12.5%) of each Corynebacterium species and Klebsiella species. In addition, Clostridium species and Bacillus species constituted 1(6.25%) each. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of the bacteria were determined by disc diffusion method. All the bacterial isolates tested showed multiple antibiotics resistance.

Keyword:Hand palm, armpits, bacterial isolates, resistance patterns, susceptibility patterns, Gram positive, Gram negative, antibiotics resistance.

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65-83 download
10. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CERAMICS AND PAINTING TECHNOLOGY IN MODERN ART

Peters, Edem E. (MFA, M. Ed, Ph.D)

Ceramics Unit, Department of Fine Arts and Design, Faculty of Humanities, University Of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT: The pictorial imagery on ceramic wares and other surfaces is an enhancement to the wares as well as the paintings on the walls or canvas and other surfaces. The two areas in focus are associated with colours for aesthetic function. Colours in ceramics are uniquely achieved from various glaze compositions and varying approaches in heating ceramic wares. The colour changing attitude of chameleon is occasionally noticed in ceramic colour (glaze) firing exploration. Oxidation firing is exposed to changes in colour from the intended colour when the firing technique changes to reduction firing, as well as influence from other factors. Painting technology engages in applying colours to various surfaces such as wood, metal, canvas, cement walls and other surfaces for aesthetic function or beautification. Ceramics is a three dimensional art while painting is a two dimensional art, but they interrelate in various ways such as the issue of colour expression on the surfaces to enhance beauty of the products. Pablo Picasso and Michelangelo were great and successful Painters who were renowned in colour application on surfaces to promote aesthetic function. Equally, inner and outer surfaces of some ceramic wares require colour by such form surfaces to boost aesthetic value, even though the wares have utilitarian function also. In this study the five visual images of ceramics and five painting works were perceived and described, interpreted and assessed. Each has the capacity to fulfill either utilitarian or aesthetic functions or both of them. The paper addressed the interrelationship of ceramics and painting technology and a simple survey research designs was adopted, where data were analyzed and summarized considering predetermined themes. Ceramics and painting technology are interrelation and also play immense role in the development of mankind and the society

Keyword:Aesthetics, Utilitarian, Glaze, Ceramics, Painting, Visual images colour, oxidation, reduction, beautification.

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83-98 download
11. Radiological Evaluation of Missing or Root canal treated of First permanent molar tooth in the Patient age group between 12 to14 years, Al Rass General Hospital.

Daij AL Daiji, Hisham Al Owaimer.Mashael Alhebs, Monirah Alfawaz, Asma AlHazza

AlRass General Hospital Dental Department

ABSTRACT: The first permanent molars usually erupt between ages (6-7) years and the important role of these teeth in the correct development of the adult dentition, Objectives: to evaluate the condition of FPM`s in patients aged 12,13 &14 years old .Method: 256 patients between 12 to14 years old panoramic radiographs was evaluated for missing or endodontically treated, the Result show alarming poor condition of PFM`s despite the effort done to control dental caries in the region.

Keyword:First molar, dentistry, radiology.

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98-107 download
12. The Impact of Audit Committee Characteristics on Voluntary Corporate Disclosure: Evidence from Egypt

Mostafa I. Elfekya&, Ayman Issaa

a Department of Accounting, Dongbei University of Finance and Economic, Dalian, China. b Department of Accounting, Faculty of Commerce, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of audit committee characteristics on voluntary corporate disclosure of 50 Egyptian listed firms for the period 2012–2016. Based on content analysis of disclosure, the empirical results of multiple regressions reveal that audit committee independence, size, and frequency meeting of audit committee members are positively associated with voluntary corporate disclosure. Financial expertise of audit committee members is not significantly associated with voluntary corporate disclosure. The results offer evidence to policymakers, investors and accounting professionals on the extent to which audit committee characteristics associated with such committee effectiveness in monitoring corporate reporting processes.

Keyword:Audit committee characteristics; voluntary corporate disclosure; firm characteristics; corporate governance; and Egypt.

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107-127 download
13. Physico-chemical properties of oil from Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sarotherodon galilaeus (Linnaeus, 1758)

B. Suleiman

Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT: A study was carried out to investigate the physico-chemical characteristics of oil obtained from two freshwater cichlids. The experimental fish species studied were Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus. Extracted fish oil was evaluated for saponification, acid, iodine and peroxide values following standard procedures of the Association of Analytical Chemists. Sarotherodon galilaeus had significantly (p<0.05) higher saponification value of 26.37 mg KOH/g compared to Oreochromis niloticus (9.82 mg KOH/g) implying smaller molecular weight of the fatty acids of glycerides in the former. Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus oil are characterised by low iodine and peroxide values which connotes great oxidative storage stability and non-susceptibility to rancidity. Thus the selected cichlids’ oil are of high quality and safe for human consumption (peroxide value <5.0 meq/Kg).

Keyword:: acid value, cichlid, iodine value, peroxide value, saponification value.

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127-135 download
14. RESEARCH SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF WAGES AND APPLICATIONS IN MANAGEMENT OF WAGES IN VIETNAMESE ENTERPRISES

Doctor Nguyen Thi Hang, Associate Professor Ph.D Nguyen Van Huan (participation)

Faculty of Economic Information System - Information and Communication Technology Thai Nguyen University

ABSTRACT: It can be affirmed that the salary is the income of the employee based on the quantity and quality of labor while performing the work of the employee according to the commitment between the employer and the employee. For businesses, salary is an extremely necessary and important expense. Therefore, the accounting of wages for enterprises must be done correctly and reasonably. This is because, the salary paid in accordance with the labor results will stimulate the employees to work, effectively work for the business, promote the spirit of work hard, creative in the process of labor. . In addition to the main salary, the employee is entitled to the bonuses, allowances, health insurance, social insurance, unemployment insurance, which are social funds that employees enjoy, it represents the concern of society, of business to each member of the enterprise. For manufacturing and trading enterprises, wages are a big part of production costs. Therefore, if enterprises know how to apply a reasonable salary regime, they will create motivation to increase labor productivity, stimulate production to develop and bring profits to businesses. The construction of a salary management information system aims to provide managers with general information on the implementation of salary payment for employees, seeing the main advantages and disadvantages in management as well as going into the policy of reasonable and most favorable salary and wage norms for employees at enterprises. Since then, help businesses do well the management, bring high efficiency for businesses.

Keyword:Salary management, payroll accounting for businesses, profits, production costs, analysis and design of salary management information systems.

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135-145 download
15. Singer’s Notion of Animals Rights

1Pascal Mwina Mbatha, 2Patrick Ouma Nyabul, 3 John Muhenda

1 *Department of Philosophy, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya 2Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya 3Department of Philosophy, the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya University

ABSTRACT: The ambition of writing on Singer notion of animals’ rights is to possibly bring to our attention that we should change from the way we look at nonhuman animals. Singer understands nonhuman animals as having rights because they can experience pain. We may logically argue that, he understands rights, as that which protects animals from exploitation. Though he is out to defend nonhuman animals, he seems to end up not bridging the conviction that man is a central part in the universe hence deserves treatment of other animals as mechanism for his survival. When he argues that, man has the right to do away with nonhumans especially those which threaten him. The act of giving room for brining nonhuman animals to impulsive death is an act of domination over them and a violation of sentience which he basis animals rights on. The researcher shall employ analytic method as a means of addressing the Singer’s notion of animals’ rights which shall probably make it possible to show his ambivalent on this issue of nonhuman animals’ rights. Once we understand rights in holistic manner, we may have reached the culmination of human understanding of nonhuman as having rights

Keyword:Singer’s, notion, animals, rights.

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145-158 download
16. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DISCHARGING WASTE ENGINE OIL ON SOIL BIOLOGICAL SENTINELS

Atuanya, E.I and Ogbebor, O.M

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: The discharge of waste engine oil (WEO) into gutters, water drains, open vacant plots and farms is a common practice in Nigeria especially by motor mechanics. Much of this oil is poured into the soil and its presence is usually harmful to soil living forms. This study examined the ecotoxicological effects of discharging waste engine oil (WEO) on soil biological sentinels. The soil samples were obtained from three (3) different sites (0-1 5cm2 depth) and merged together to form a composite soil. Nitrobacter spp. was isolated using heterotrophic nitrobacter medium. Acute and chronic, toxicity tests for Nitrobacter spp. and Apporectoda alonga (earthworms) were carried out. The physicochemical parameters of the composite soil contaminated with different concentrations of WEO were also determined. Analyses of the samples indicated that the various concentrations of WEO (50%, 100% and 200%) in liquid medium containing Nitrobacter spp. were increasingly acidic with a corresponding pH of 5.1 2, 4.80 and 4.56. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was drastically reduced from 9.20 in the control sample to 4.85 at 200% concentration. With increasing concentrations of WEO, there was a gradual decline in total Nitrobacter count in the soil from 1.7 x 101 cfu/g in the control sample to 0.5x101 cfu/g at 200% concentration. The percentage inhibition on Nitrobacter increased hourly as WEO concentrations increased from 3% inhibition (1st hr) to 13% inhibition (3rd hr), signifying the lethality of WEO on soil microbial activities. Nitrite concentration in the soil decreased across the various times analyzed. Chromium, Cadmium. Nickel, Copper and Iron values decreased weekly across all concentrations (50%, 100% and 200%). In the 28 days span, growth rate of earthworms (A. longa) in the soil was drastically reduced as concentrations of WEO increased. At 50% concentration of WEO, 0% death rate was recorded in the first week. However, by the 3rd and 4th weeks, a maximum of 100% death rate respectively was recorded at the highest concentration of WEO; thus highlighting the contributions of WEO to the toxicity and death of free living organisms in the soil.

Keyword:waste engine oil, soil biological sentinels, effects.

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158-169 download
17. Article title pediatric emergency cases managed with intraosseous access: indications, complication and outcomes.

Nino kikodze and ketevan nemsadze

1.Phd student, david tvildiani medical university; 2.Professor; corr. Member of georgian national academy of sciences; david Tvildiani medical university;

ABSTRACT: Intraosseous (io) access is an alternative way of administering fluid and drug and also taking biopsies needed for clinical and laboratory tests in cases when peripheral venous access couldn’t be established. The io route was successfully secured in all cases with a significant shorter time of vascular access insertion, shorter length of stay and reduction in mortality in io group vs. Iv group. Io access was first used in 1922. This technique was widely used during 1940’s when emergency medical care was routinely needed for seriously injured patients in world war ii. Since 1950’s after the introduction of peripheral venous access technique io access lost its actuality. In management of pediatric emergencies intravascular (venous) access is prior but sometimes establishing peripheral venous access is impossible or it may take too much time because of anatomical or physiological characteristics, such as an excessive subcutaneous fatty tissue and veins with a small diameter. Vasoconstriction, reduction of circulating blood volume and peripheral venous collapse takes place during cardiopulmonary arrest, septic or hypovolemic shock and prolonged status epilepticus. This features alone or in combination can make venous catheterization impossible. For pediatric resuscitation, vascular access must be established quickly, often in difficult circumstances. Alternative methods of peripheral access, such as umbilical catheter, central venous lines, venous cut-down, and ultrasound guided access, may be poor options because of the patient’s age or condition, the urgency of resuscitation, and/or the skill of available clinicians. Anatomically, the described site is suggested to offer a safe alternative access point for emergency infusion in severely hypovolemic newborns and infants, without the risk of damage to any anatomical structures. Io access complications are infection - cellulites, abscess, osteomyelitis and fracture. The most widespread complication is extravasation, which, if left unidentified, can cause compartment syndrome. The ez-io® device is easy to use and requires minimal training. These studies suggest that the ez-io® is an easy to use, easy to learn tool that can be used successfully in resuscitation scenarios with minimal training. It is evident that blood samples drawn immediately after intraosseous cannulation can provide accurate laboratory and blood bank data to aid in resuscitation. More recently, the pharmacokinetics of intraosseous drug delivery has been compared with central venous drug delivery.

Keyword:intraosseous (io) access; venous access; intraosseous drug delivery.

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169-178 download

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